Glossary
F
Foreign sources
The definitions of "foreign sources," as a qualification criterion for NCOs, individuals, and the media as FAs, have specific features, as described below.

Foreign sources for NCOs (para. 6, Art. 2 of Federal Law No. 7-FZ On NCOs of Jan. 12, 1996) are foreign states, state bodies of foreign states, international and foreign organizations, foreign citizens, and stateless persons or persons authorized by them.

Unlike the definition of foreign sources for individuals, foreign sources for NCOs may also include citizens of the RF or Russian legal entities that receive funds and (or) other property from foreign sources or act as intermediaries in receiving such funds and (or) other property (except for open joint stock companies with state participation and their subsidiaries).

Foreign sources for the media, specifically individuals recognized as media (Art. 6 of Federal Law No. 2124-1 On the Mass Media of Dec. 27, 1991), include all foreign sources listed for NCOs, while adding foreign media included in the FA registry and Russian legal entities established by the media that are included in the FA registry.

Foreign sources for individuals (part 1 of Art. 2.1 of Federal Law No. 272-FZ On Measures of Influence on Persons Involved in Violations of Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms, the Rights and Freedoms of Citizens of the Russian Federation)

Law No. 272-FZ classifies the following as foreign sources for individuals:

  • a foreign state;
  • state bodies of a foreign state;
  • an international or foreign organization;
  • a foreign citizen; and
  • a stateless person.

It is unclear whether Russian citizens or Russian legal entities can be recognized as a foreign source, since hypothetically there is a possibility of applying the same rule as for NCOs.

I
Intermediary
An intermediary in the receipt of funds and (or) other property from a foreign source (para. 6, Art. 2 of Federal Law No. 7-FZ On Non-Commercial Organizations of Jan. 12, 1996) is a citizen of the RF or a Russian legal entity that transfers funds and (or) other property from a foreign source, or another authorized person, to a Russian NCO participating in political activity carried out on the territory of the RF.
L
Labeling of materials
All materials created and distributed by FAs, including those posted by FAs on any internet site (including websites and social networks) must be labeled. When printing materials from a FA website, labeling must be preserved in the printed text.

The requirements for labeling depend on the type of registered FA entity. The details for each type of entity (legal or physical person) are included in the table.

*Labeling of materials/information of media-FAs:

  • text of the communication: "This communication (material) was created and (or) distributed by a foreign mass media organization performing the functions of a FA, and (or) a Russian legal entity performing the functions of a FA;"
  • text materials:
    • placement at the beginning of each communication/material beneath the heading or, in the absence of a heading, before the beginning of the communication;
    • the font size in printed/electronic materials must be twice as large as that used for body text;
    • contrasting color with respect to the background should be used;
    • labeling over other text/images is prohibited;
  • audio materials:
    • overlay of other sounds is prohibited;
    • volume should not be lower than that of the main communication;
    • speeding up playback is prohibited;
    • reproduction of labeling at the beginning of each broadcast as well as after each interruption;
    • duration of playback not less than 15 seconds;
  • audiovisual products:
    • reproduction of labeling at the beginning of each broadcast as well as after each interruption;
    • duration of playback not less than 15 seconds;
  • images:
    • at least 20% of image area.

Unlike legal entities included in the media outlets FA registry, there are currently no specific requirements for the formulation and design of labeling in relation to materials of NCO-FAs, UPA-FAs, and individual-FAs (including under the Federal Law on the Mass Media).

All materials posted by the FA on any site on the internet (including websites and social networks) shall be labeled. When printing materials from a FA website, labeling shall be preserved in the printed text.


P
Political Activity
Definitions of political activity under paragraph 6 of Art. 2 of Federal Law No. 7-FZ On NCOs of Jan. 12, 1996 and part 1, Art. 2.1 of Federal Law No. 272-FZ On Measures of Influence on Persons Involved in Violations of Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms, the Rights and Freedoms of Citizens of the RF of Dec. 28, 2012 – are identical for NCOs and individuals.


Political Activity for NCOs (para. 6, Art. 2 of Federal Law No. 7-FZ On NCOs of Jan. 12, 1996) is activity in the field of state building, protection of the foundations of the constitutional system of the RF and the federal structure of the RF, protection of sovereignty and ensuring the territorial integrity of the RF, ensuring the rule of law, law and order, state and public security, national defense, foreign policy and socio-economic and national development of the RF, the development of the political system, the activities of state bodies and local authorities, and legislative regulation of human and civil rights and freedoms in order to influence the development and implementation of state policy, the formation of state bodies and local authorities, and their decisions and actions.

Spheres of political activity include:

  • state building;
  • protection of the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and the federal structure of the Russian Federation;
  • protection of the sovereignty and ensuring the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation;
  • ensuring the rule of law, law and order, state and public security, defense of the nation;
  • foreign policy, socio-economic and national development of the Russian Federation;
  • development of the political system;
  • activities of state bodies, local self-government bodies; and
  • legislative regulation of human and civil rights and freedoms in order to influence the development and implementation of state policy, the formation of state bodies and local self-government bodies, and their decisions and actions.


Forms of political activity include:

  • participation in the organization and holding of public events in the form of meetings, rallies, demonstrations, processions or picketing (or in various combinations of these forms); organization of public debates, discussions, speeches;
  • participation in activities aimed at obtaining a certain result in elections or referenda, monitoring of elections or referenda, the formation of election or referendum commissions, and participation in the activities of political parties;
  • public appeals to state bodies, local self-government bodies, and their officials, as well as other actions influencing the activities of such bodies, including those aimed at adopting, changing, repealing laws or other regulatory legal acts;
  • dissemination, including with the use of modern information technology, of opinions on decisions made by state bodies and their policies;
  • formation of public and political views and beliefs, including by conducting public opinion polls and publishing the results or conducting other sociological research;
  • involvement of citizens, including minors, in such activities; and
  • financing of such activities.
R
Registry of non-commercial organizations performing the functions of a foreign agent
The procedure for maintaining the registry is established by Order of the MoJ of Russia No. 223 on the Procedure for Maintaining the Registry of NCOs Performing the Functions of a FA of Nov. 30, 2012.

The information constituting the registry is posted on the MoJ's official website.

Registry of media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent

The procedure for maintaining the registry is established by Order of the MoJ of Russia No. 216 on the Approval of the Procedure for the Formation and Maintenance of the Registry of Foreign Mass Media Performing the Functions of a FA of Sept. 24, 2020.


The information constituting the registry is posted on the MoJ's official website.
Registry of individual-FAs and UPA-FAs
As of February 28, 2021, the government has not created the registries of individual-FAs and UPA-FAs, nor has it approved the procedure for maintaining the registries.
U
Unregistered public association (UPA)
A UPA (Art. 5 of Federal Law No. 82-FZ On Public Associations of May 19, 1995) is an association that is not a legal entity which is created on the initiative of at least three founders, carries out its statutory activities and acquires rights (with the exception of the rights of a legal entity) from the moment of the decision to create a public association, approve its charter and form its governing, oversight, and audit bodies.

A UPA has the following rights:

  • freely distribute information about its activities;
  • hold meetings, rallies and demonstrations, processions and pickets;
  • represent and defend its rights, the legitimate interests of its members and participants in government bodies, local government bodies and public associations;
  • exercise other powers when those are directly mentioned by federal laws on certain types of public associations; and
  • develop initiatives on issues related to the implementation of its statutory goals and make proposals to government and local authorities.